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Brief in part because of lack of material: there are, for instance, no systematic figures on Russian-national language bilingualism in the early period, and statistical materials of all kinds are exceedingly scarce for the late Stalinist period. REFERENCES Allworth, E . (1964), Uzbek Literary Politics, The Hague. Anweiler, 0 . ), 41-51. Avrovin, V. A. (1975), Problemy funktsional'no{ storony iiizyka, Leningrad. Simon Crisp 43 Bacon, E. (1966), Central Asians under Russian Rule, Ithaca, New York.

1972), Multilingualism in the Soviet Union, The Hague. Mikhankova, V. A . (1949), Nikolai Iakovlevich Marr: ocherk ego zhizni i nauchnoi deiatel'nosti, Moscow and Leningrad. Murkelinskii, G. B. (1979), 'Voprosy normalizatsii literaturnykh iazykov Dagestana', Annual of Ibero-Caucasian Linguistics, vol. 6, 258-69. Musaev, K. M. (1965), Alfavity iazykov narodov SSSR, Moscow. Musaev, K. M. ) (1973), Orfografii tiurkskikh literaturnykh iazykov narodov SSSR, Moscow. Novgorodov, S. A. (1977) , Pervye shagi iakutskoi pis'mennosti.

Such facts were made much of in the emigre press of the time- Daghestani observers outside the country, for example, were quick to point out that mention of the reform project only began to be made in Daghestan after it had been officially approved in Moscow. Further fuel for the accusations of russification was provided by the fact that the reform of the alphabet virtually coincided with the introduction of Russian as a compulsory subject in schools which took place at about the same time (decree of 13 March 1938; see Anweiler 1982: 43).

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