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By S. Charles Kendeigh

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Extra resources for Animal ecology

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Teal a species ifi a 1957). Communities are in ;i more or less continual process of change (Clements 1910). These changes result in part from the reactions and coactions of the organisms themselves and in part from such external forces as changing i)hysiogra|)liy, changing climate, and organic evolution. sappear. These changes are especially noticeable in dominant s])ecies, since these species exert a controlling role over the composition and structure of the community as a whole. The replacement of one comnnmity by another -Succession final stage The is reached.

The point should be emphasized that you start with nature, that is, with the organism in its environment. Also it should be noted that morphology and physiology of the organism are entirely subsidiary matters, although most important to the person interested in knowing how the organism behaves as it does. (Huntsman 1948). The behavior of a species in relation to its environment is called its mores (Shelford tation 1913). main objectives of ecology. . . best use of these scribed in Table 2-1. Both mice are equipped with for hearing, long vibrissae ; make pied by white-footed mice and deer mice are de- histories usually proceed with, first, analysis of the behavior adjustments needed for the survival of the mature animal then of its reproductive behavior and, lastly, of the development of behavior and physiological its physiological adjustments, and the special behavior for climbing.

Overpopulations of the European rabbit alter the character of the forest by frustrating of the grass Evaluating and rlaxsifying animals ecologically One of the most important, yet difficult, problems in ecology is evaluation of the roles the different kinds of animals play in community dynamics. The biotic community A basis for classifying species community. the to fidelity A is species is exclusive it occurs only in a single area, habitat, or community characteristic (selective, preferential) when it is abundant in one area or community but also ocand ubiquitous curs in small numbers elsewhere (indifferent) when it is found more or less equably distributed in a wide variety of communities.

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