By David A. Scott, Jerry Podany, Brian B. Considine
The maintenance and research of metals by way of the issues of degradation and applicable tools of exam and remedy more and more contain collaboration among scientists and conservators. The 16 essays during this quantity specialize in genuine items from a variety of classes and cultures. members contain Thomas Chase of the Freer Gallery in Washington, D.C., at the expertise of chinese language bronze casting; Paola Fiorentino of the Istituto Centrale del Restauro in Rome at the conservation of the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius; Knud Holm of the nationwide Museum of Denmark at the recovery of nineteenth-century zinc sculptures; Ian MacLeod of the Western Australian Maritime Museum at the conservation of metals from underwater websites; and W. Andrew Oddy of the British Museum at the use of gold foil and cord throughout the Iron Age in southern Africa.
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Extra resources for Ancient & Historic Metals: Conservation and Scientific Research
ORIGIN AND TYPE OF B R O N Z E M AT E R I A L A N A LY Z E D To determine the origin and type of bronze material on the objects, five small bronze objects were initially studied: four pins and a fishing hook. 1 The first series of objects was analyzed using the five questions outlined above as a central focus. The second series contained objects that were used for metallographic examinations and for the investigation of corrosion mechanisms. The site of Hauterive-Champréveyres contains five different archaeological layers (Rychner 1991): Layer 1: Yellow, sandy layer of recent origin, probably formed by washing out the lower (older) layers, and containing artifacts from these layers.
At the interface bronze-corrosion layer, the tin content increases and traces of sulfur are present. The iron values are still very low. Optically, two layers may be distinguished in the corrosion crust. Their compositions are listed in columns 3 and 4 of Table 2. One may observe that there is no significant difference between them. Both layers have a composition consistent with that of chalcopyrite. The corrosion layer contains no tin and only very little arsenic and zinc. Most publications on microbial corrosion of metals under anaerobic conditions concern the corrosion of ferrous metals (Panter 1980).
Three sample areas chosen for the cleaning tests. demineralized water and applying brushes for five minutes. The extraction of total soluble salts was calculated for each fraction of water by conductivity measurements 24 RESTORATION OF THE MARCUS AURELIUS of the runoff. 3 The maximum number of washings for the external surface was 14 fractions (1,400 ml total) on a partially gilded area with powdery alterations, and the minimum was 5 fractions (500 ml total) on a gilded area with black alterations.