Download An Introduction to the History of Psychology (7th Edition) by B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley PDF

By B. R. Hergenhahn, Tracy Henley

Desires questioned early guy, Greek philosophers spun difficult theories to provide an explanation for human reminiscence and conception, Descartes postulated that the mind used to be full of "animal spirits," and psychology was once formally deemed a "science" within the nineteenth century. during this 7th variation of AN creation TO THE background OF PSYCHOLOGY, authors Hergenhahn and Henley show that almost all of the worries of up to date psychologists are manifestations of subject matters which were a part of psychology for hundreds--or even thousands--of years. The book's a variety of images and pedagogical units, besides its biographical fabric on key figures in psychology, have interaction readers and facilitate their knowing of every chapter.

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Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. INTRODUCTION them. In this way, the experimental setting itself may act as a confounding variable in the search for the causes of human behavior. Psychologists who accept this viewpoint believe that there are specific causes of behavior but that they cannot be accurately known. Such a position is called indeterminism. Another example of indeterminacy is Immanuel Kant’s (1724–1804) conclusion that a science of psychology is impossible because the mind could not be objectively employed to study itself.

Questions such as, What 7 caused World War II? and What causes schizophrenia? are not amenable to one simple answer. Even mundane questions such as, Why did John quit his job? or Why did Jane marry John? are, in reality, enormously complex. In the history of philosophy and science, the concept of causation has been one of the most perplexing (see, for example, Clatterbaugh, 1999; or Meehl, 1978). The Assumption of Determinism. Because a main goal of science is to discover lawful relationships, science assumes that what is being investigated is lawful.

For those scientists accepting a given paradigm, it becomes the way of looking at and analyzing the subject matter of their science. Once a paradigm is accepted, the activities of those accepting it become a matter of exploring the implications of that paradigm. Kuhn referred to such activities as normal science. Normal science provides what Kuhn called a “mopping-up” operation for a paradigm. While following a paradigm, scientists explore in depth the problems defined by the paradigm and utilize the methods suggested by the paradigm while exploring those problems.

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