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By Philip Thody

An old advent to the ecu Union is a chronological political historical past of eu integration from the Fifties to the current. it's also a contextualising survey of wider eu heritage because the 1600s, and areas unification opposed to a history of global politics. This essentially written advent to the fundamental historical past, economics and politics of the ecu Union assumes no earlier wisdom. It bargains an in depth account of the Union with sections on: * how the Union works * easy rules of the Union * arguments over contested practices, together with agriculture * problems with the chilly warfare, expansion, and the function of the us * language * unmarried eu forex With an annotated bibliography, chronology and consultant to the associations of the eu Union, An old advent to the eu Union comprises the newest study and targeted therapy of the rules of the eu Union.

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Until the late 1980s, when the Russians withdrew their army of occupation and allowed each satellite country to go its own way, such states were one-party dictatorships, as intolerant of dissent as Franco’s Spain, Salazar’s Portugal or the Greece of the colonels had been until they were overthrown in 1974. As the countries of Eastern Europe History 23 become more democratic, they too are becoming eligible for membership, even though they will, like Greece and Portugal, bring relatively little to the Community by way of economic gain.

One of the principal methods for achieving these aims is given as the establishment of a common external trade policy as well as common agricultural and fisheries policies. Article 3 of the Treaty of Rome also speaks of the need to co-ordinate economic policies, to harmonise social policies, to create a common transport policy, and to establish a social fund capable of improving working conditions throughout the Community. Between July and November 1957, the Treaty of Rome was ratified by the parliaments of Belgium, France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, and it came into effect on 1 January 1958.

This event was the decision of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), in the autumn of 1973, to quadruple the price of oil. In 1950, this would have been inconvenient for motorists, but not the body blow to the economy which it almost proved in 1973. In 1950, 75 per cent of the energy needs of Western Europe were met by coal, but by 1970, this had fallen to 20 per cent. All the economies of the industrialised world had allowed themselves to become heavily dependent upon cheap oil in a similar way, letting their coal mines run down, and refraining, for ecological reasons, from developing nuclear energy.

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