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By Richard Folkson

Эта серьёзная книга посвящена альтернативным видам топлива и технологическим решениям в устройстве автомобилей для снижения негативного влияния на окружающую среду.

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23% overall for renewable fuels, comprised mostly of ‘corn ethanol’ (EPA, 2011a). Anderson et al. e. the blend-stock for oxygenate blending (BOB), in to which the ethanol is blended. , 2012). In fact virtually all the ethanol used in US transport is used in the form of E10 (a mixture of 10% by volume of ethanol in ‘gasoline’) which has been available in the US since the 1980s but is now widespread due to the political and environmental developments described above. A ‘blend wall’ has arisen due to all the low-level ethanol-gasoline blends, often referred to as ‘gasohol’, being close to the maximum ethanol content (10% by volume) which vehicle manufacturers will allow for a user to remain within their warranty provision.

Emissions regulations were first introduced in the 1970s to control exhaust pollutants. The regulated gases measured during prescribed tests control NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (carbon monoxide), HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and PM (particulate matter representing carbon particles or soot). Carbon dioxide is also measured correlating to fuel consumption during the test. Measurements are made in gm/km during a defined drive cycle specified in the regulations. This is usually the NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) for European regulations or the NHTSA (National Highway Transportation and Safety Administration) for North American requirements or CARB (California Air Resources Board).

Up to 26 provinces and municipalities have independently sanctioned the blending of methanol into gasoline for some time, including M5, M10, M15, M25, M30, M45, M50, M85 and M100 grades. The stronghold of such activity is the coal-producing area of Shanxi province. A national standard for M85 was implemented on 1 December 2009 (NSPRC, 2009) and several indigenous vehicle manufacturers produce M85-gasoline flexible-fuel vehicles. A national standard for M15 blends is also being developed. , 2008).

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