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By J. Bruce Amstutz

Whilst Soviet army forces invaded Afghanistan in past due 1979, the invasion used to be, immediately, an try and retailer a tottering Marxist executive and a caution to either East and West that the Brezhnev Doctrine of "necessary intervention" will be enforced.

Dr. J. Bruce Amstutz, U. S. cost d’affaires in Kabul from 1977 to 1980, starts off his remedy of the 1st 5 years of Soviet profession with an historic evaluation of years of Russian meddling in Afghan affairs. He follows this account with a first-hand file of the 1979 invasion, then analyzes that intervention from political, army, and monetary views. one of the vital matters Dr. Amstutz discusses are the various Afghan political factions - pro-Soviet and resistance - their leaders, the human rights and refugee difficulties, diplomatic efforts to settle the clash, and Soviet measures to repress and indoctrinate the Afghans.

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Extra resources for Afghanistan: The First Five Years of Soviet Occupation

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Moscow and London continued to be rivals in Afghanistan during the two decades between World War I and World War U, particularly in the I92(K. In Kabul the British and Soviet legations were the most important ones, and London did not hesitate to use its influence to thwart Soviet 16 Afghanistan designs in the region. In the Anglo-Russian Trade Agreement of 1921 Britain extracted a Soviet pledge to refrain from "any form of hostile action against British interests ... especially in India and in the Independent State of Afghanistan "37 Later, Britain succeeded in exerting pressure on Kabul to prevent the Soviets from opening two consulates in eastern and central Afghanistan.

7** THE KHALQ FACTION PURGES THE PARCHAM FACTION The Soviets found, however, that they could not control the new leftist Afghan leadership. Most importantly, the Soviets were unable to prevent the purging of the Parvham faction by members of the Khalq faction. The reunification of the parly, brought about by Soviet pressure in July 1977. only nine months before the coup, disintegrated six weeks after the coup. The Khalqis. with their larger party membership and greater strength in the armed forces, moved in early June 1^78 to purge Am/k/m-fact ion members.

Sir Olaf Came, scholar and Governor of Northwest Frontier Province (1946-47). July 1981 SOVIET INFLUENCE GROWS URING THE 34 YEAR PERIOD FROM I«M5 TO THE SOVIET invasion of laic 1979 the USSR emerged as the most important foreign nation involved in Afghan affairs. Over those years Soviet penetration into Afghanistan's economy and military establishments was singularly successful. In trade, in economic and military aid. and even in political influence the USSR became preeminent among foreign countries involved in Afghanistan.

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