Download A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the by David Stone PDF

By David Stone

This publication brings to gentle Russias undeservedly-obscure army earlier, rectifying the tendency of yankee and Western army historians to overlook the Russian facet of items. Russia, as either a Western and non-Western society, demanding situations our puzzling over Western army superiority. Russia has constantly struggled with backwardness compared to extra built powers, at a few instances extra effectively than others. The imperatives of survival in a aggressive overseas atmosphere have, furthermore, produced in Russian society a excessive measure of militarization. whereas together with operational and tactical element that appeals to army historical past fans, this e-book at the same time integrates army heritage into the wider topics of Russian heritage and attracts comparisons to advancements in Europe. The ebook additionally demanding situations previous assumptions in regards to the Russian army. Russian army historical past can't be summed up easily in one inventory word, no matter if perennial incompetence or luck merely via stolid, stoic protection; it additionally indicates a number of examples of extraordinary offensive successes. Stone lines Russias attention-grabbing army heritage, and its lengthy fight to grasp Western army expertise with out Western social and political associations. It covers the army dimensions of the emergence of Muscovy, the disastrous reign of Ivan the negative, and the next construction of the recent Romanov dynasty. It offers with Russias emergence as a good strength lower than Peter the good and culminating within the defeat of Napoleon. After that triumph, the publication argues, Russias social and fiscal stagnation undermined its huge, immense army energy and taken catastrophic defeat within the Crimean struggle. The publication then covers imperial Russias lengthy fight to reform its army desktop, with combined leads to the Russo-Japanese warfare and international battle I. The Russian Revolution created a brand new Soviet Russia, yet this booklet exhibits the continuity throughout that divide. The Soviet Unions interwar suggestions and its harrowing event in global struggle II owed a lot to imperial Russian precedents. A superpower after the warfare, the Soviet Unions army may was once bought on the cost of constant fiscal backwardness. ironically, the very militarization meant to supply safety as an alternative destroyed the Soviet Union, leaving a brand new Russia in the back of the West economically. simply as there has been loads of continuity after 1917, this e-book demonstrates how the recent Russian army has inherited lots of its present difficulties from its Soviet predecessor. the cost that Russia has paid for its persisted lifestyles as an outstanding strength, for this reason, is the overpowering militarization of its society and economic climate, a scenario it maintains to fight with.

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The ATP did not fund product development. Private industry bears the costs of product development, production, marketing, sales, and distribution. • The ATP awards were made strictly on the basis of rigorous peer-reviewed competitions. Selection was based on the innovation, the technical risk, potential economic benefits to the nation, and the strength of the commercialization plan of the project. • The ATP’s support did not become a perpetual subsidy or entitlement—each project had goals, specific funding allocations, and completion dates established at the outset.

These projects are overseen by highly educated DARPA staffs who, in conjunction with university scientists and industry research labs, attempt to create advanced military applications. 1 Technology Innovation Program (TIP) The Technology Innovation Program (TIP) was established by the 2007 America COMPETES Act, at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), US Department of Commerce. Its mission is to assist US businesses and universities to support, promote, and accelerate innovation in the United States through high-risk, high-reward research Technology Innovation Program (2011).

Research (SBIR) program in 1982 explicitly to reinvigorate jobs and growth by enhancing the innovative capabilities of the United States. In particular, the mandate assigned by the Congress was to explicitly (1) promote technological innovation, (2) enhance the commercialization of new ideas emanating from scientific research, (3) increase the role of small business in meeting the needs of federal research and development, and (4) expand the involvement of minority and disadvantaged people in innovative activity.

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